persuaded to return to their villages, under promises of peace, and were then trapped and massacred. The greatest single victory came in 1625, with the murder of 1, 000 Pamunkeys and the burning of their town. This wanton slaughter of our people continued for fourteen years, and ended in mutual exhaustion. During this time, King James annulled the Virginia Company charter and Virginia became a Crown colony, but the Indian policy remained unchanged.
In 1641, after five years of peace, land-grab pressures again rose past the danger point, and Opechancanough, in his nineties and so feeble that he had to be carried on a litter, struck once more. Again in a single day, hundreds of Englishmen paid the price.
Opechancanough was captured and shot mt he back; the Powhatan Confederacy was broken up. The English made peace with the various tribes and assigned them to reservations which were subsequently taken at the colony's pleasure.
Captain John Smith wrote in 1622, "Besides it is more easie to civilize them by conquest then faire meanes; for the one may be made at once, but their civilizing will require a long time and much industry."
Edward Waterhouse, a Secretary of the Virginia Company, declared that, by their perfidy in the massacre, the "savages"had actually done the company a favor! "May now by a right of warre, and law of Nations, invade the country and destroy them who sought to destroy us."
On August 1, 1622, Governor Wyatt, on instructions from London, issued the order for "a perpetual war, without peace or truce, " an organized process of extermination. The colonial militia was to harass the local tribes unremittingly, to raid and to ravage systematically, to extirpate or to expel the red men from the banks of the James and beyond, tO "pursue and follow them."
By 1623-24, most of the tribes which had once made their home on the peninsula between the James and the Pamunkey rivers had been driven off, some withdrawing toward the north banks of the Pamunkey and the York, others as far north as the Rappahannock and the Patomac. Even then, the English raiders would follow, pursue, and harass them in their retreat.
The Council for Virginia instructed Governor Wyatt, "Not only the sparing but the preservation of the younger people of both sexes, whose bodies may be labor and service become profitable, and their minds not overgrown with evil customs, be reduced to civility, and afterwards to Christianity." The Powhatans' age-old Siouan-speaking enemies in the Piedmont were to be incited to attack the Tidewater area (the bounty offered by the English was predicated on heads rather than scalps: "by reward of beads and copper upon the bringing in of their heads") (Monacans and Mannahoock).
By October 5, 1646, Thomas Rolfe denounced his heritage and became a lieutenant in the colonial militia by Act of the Grand Assembly of Virginia in session at Jamestown, as William Stith said of Thomas Rolfe, "A person of fortune and distinction in this Country."
In 1646, the General Assembly of Virginia reported that the Indians were "so routed and
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